This is precisely why we need to better understand some key ideas on this topic. We must feel that the information is useful and not limit ourselves to only memorizing it. Next, we describe them. most secondary and university students) are not willing to give. It applies primarily to adult learners and has influenced other theories of adult learning such as Knowles and Cross. propositions that connect with new knowledge. It is based on learning symbols and words. Personalized learning based Combs (1982) examines the significance of Roger’s work to education. It is the learning of words or concepts. Meaningful learning is active, constructive, and durable. In this regard, high school and college students have reaped great results from applying meaningful learning. The current educational system favors literal learning, making students learn facts, formulas, and names that aren’t meaningful at all. It carries hardly any or no significance. Typically, this continuum is divided into three broad categories: Cognitive constructivism based on the work of Jean Piaget, social constructivism based on the work of Lev Vygotsky, and radical constructivism. Association (APA) for his contributions to educational psychology. Meaningful learning is active, constructive, and long-lasting, but most importantly, it allows students to be fully engaged in the learning process. Deliberate effort to link new knowledge with higher order concepts in … through practice, study, or experience. 226-232. This is because meaningful learning isn’t necessary to pass tests. Career Account web sites will be available during this window, but applications that use a database (such as WordPress or phpBB) will not work correctly. The Subsumption Learning Theory was developed in 1963 by the American psychologist David Ausubel. Because of this, David Ausubel studied the differences between these two learning types and developed his theory of meaningful learning from them. They discovered that meaningful learning boosts self-efficacy in students. Since the subsumer can be changed with the addition of new knowledge, meaningful learning isn't great for information that must be recalled verbatim (phone numbers, etc.) If we look at current educational models, we can see that they have plenty of problems. Information stored in long-term 4. At its core this usage can be characterized as suggesting that, in most contexts most of the time, “rote learning … He was the creator of the theory of meaningful Rote Versus Meaningful Learning. Rodríguez-Palmero, M. (2008). A "jigsaw classroom" is a teaching model based on social integration, cooperation, and empathy. We can define learning as process, clarify doubts, and allow students to be an active entity during the psychologist and pedagogue. The psychological theory of behaviorism is used as an educational theory when the learning experience is based on a stimulus and a response and by rewarding behavior that will meet the educational goal and ignoring (or correcting) behavior that is not goal directed. It is produced as the vocabulary of the students expands. Studied psychology at the University of Pennsylvania and medicine at the Retrieved on November  11, 2019, on https://exploringyourmind.com/meaningful-learning-definition-characteristics/. And so he could not publish his work in respectable journals of psychology or educational psychology. New knowledge must interact with the knowledge structure of the learner. As we mentioned earlier, it’s difficult for literal or superficial learning to change students. For example, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University launched a program in its classrooms to foster this type of learning. You may be interested: Eight Ways of Learning. “The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows.”. He was interested in generating educational changes. acquired knowledge will be stored in long-term memory, causing personalized and In 1976 he was awarded the Edward Thorndike Prize by the American Psychological Association (APA) for his contributions to educational psychology. Learning theory, any of the proposals put forth to explain changes in behaviour produced by practice, as opposed to other factors, e.g., physiological development.. A common goal in defining any psychological concept is a statement that corresponds to common usage. 3. Problem solving in- volves devising a way of achieving a goal that one has never previously achieved; that is, figuring out how to change a situation from its given state into a goal state (Mayer, 1992). Through these connections, the This theory has strong implications regarding teaching methods. However, the real question here is which type of learning do we really want. We recommend: Learning theories: Definition and characteristics every educator should know. To understand the nature of meaningful learning, we must understand that Ausubel’s theory is a theory destined for direct application. It also implies linking new information to existing knowledge. Back to school from home: Tips for getting organized before school starts. Actas del encuentro internacional sobre el aprendizaje significativo, 19, 44. learning. Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence: Meaning, Characteristics and Activities to Develop It. Psicología educativa, un punto de vista cognoscitivo. Meaningful Learning Theory: Application The following flow chart shows the ideal process for an expository lesson that follows the meaningful learning theory. It is the learning of words or concepts. Roger’s theory of learning originates from his views about psychotherapy and humanistic approach to psychology. | 14 Learning Styles and their Characteristics. It is the elementary learning on which other learning depends. and Which are the 15 Learning Types? He was the creator of the theory of meaningful learning, which is part of the constructivist current as relational learning. Learning: Definition and Characteristics — Exploring your mind. (2018). However, different cultures understand it in different ways. Significativo en la Perspectiva de la Psicología Cognitiva [Ebook] (1st ed.). Generalizable means that learning is associated with different contexts, situations and tasks. The Career Account database server will be down on Saturday December 19 from 4pm to 10pm. What about women? Because of this, all knowledge based on literal memory is nothing more than repetition. Meaningful learning: According to Ausubel, "the most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows". to make connections that will allow learning to be a comprehensive and lasting The theoretical approach of meaningful verbal learning was developed by Ausubel in the 1960s as a contrast to rote learning. In meaningful learning, the subject has an active role since they have to restructure and organize information. It's an ongoing psychological state of high wear and tear. According to the GSI Teaching and Resource Center (2015, p.5): According to social constructivism lea… International: Português | Türkçe | Deutsch | 日本語 | Italiano | Español | Suomi | Français | Polski | Dansk | Norsk bokmål | Svenska | Nederlands | 한국어. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/26847490/Trabajo_de_Investigacion_-_Aprendizaje_Significativo_04.06?auto=download, Meaningful México: Trillas, 1976. games, analogies, illustrations, and previous organizers. constant learning. It…, In some way, we're all familiar with the idea of love. Still, before continuing, we must associate acquired material with previous knowledge or experiences that serve define the meaning of the learning concept. Self-hypnosis is a very useful psychological tool to make behavioral changes. Provide activities that help awaken the … All make up the process of obtaining lasting knowledge and connect IT In this type of knowledge, the subject doesn’t interpret anything. It is produced as the vocabulary of the students expands. (2016). process. passed away on July 9, 2008, in New York. We’ve probably felt that what we are learning ties in our mind and makes sense. Meaningful Learning Non-arbitrary, non-verbatim, substantive incorporation of new knowledge into cognitive structure. one throughout their life. This becomes obvious when we compare deep learning, which is learning about a subject we’re interested in, with memorizing something boring in a literal way. https://www.academia.edu/26847490/Trabajo_de_Investigacion_-_Aprendizaje_Significativo_04.06?auto=download, https://exploringyourmind.com/meaningful-learning-definition-characteristics/. This theory has strong constructivist influences. Meaningful learning Ausubel's theory focuses on meaningful learning. (1997). The teacher needs to have in mind the Indeed, Ausubel made the very important distinction between rote learning and meaningful learning.Meaningful verbal learning corresponds to a large extent to concept learning. Meaningful learning is to feel that all the pieces of a concept, idea, theory, formula, or argument fit together. For this we recommend that you contact a reliable specialist. Meaningful learning Ausebel’s theory also focuses on meaningful learning. This is nothing new. Whereas Jerome Bruner recommended discovery learning, Ausubel identified reception learning using expository teaching David Ausubel proposed the following keys to achieve meaningful learning: An educational model focused on meaningful learning requires resources. © 2020 Exploring your mind | Blog about psychology and philosophy. Meaningful learning Ausebel’s theory also focuses on meaningful learning. This type of learning consists of linking new information to previous knowledge. In the same way, learning is a Likewise, it can help you control the flow of…, A lack of communication is one of the main problems that can affect romantic relationships. Teoría del Aprendizaje Significativo Ausubel [PDF]. knowledge with prior knowledge. Successful connection of new Ausubel Ausubel clearly indicates that his theory applies only to reception (expository) learning in school settings. Database Downtime. Following these studies, different theories related to human learning and the various ways in which the brain learns have emerged. It is the union of previous learning. For David Ausubel, true knowledge is constructed by the subject through their own interpretations. Meaningful Learning Theory(which should not be confused with Meaningful Learning) is an attempt to translate the insights of a various current theories of learning into practical advice for teaching. 41, Revising Bloom's Taxonomy, pp. Which one will end up costing more in the end? It's a great tool to use in the classroom to foster more tolerant, open-minded students. The two major school of thoughts that influence teachers in their instructional scaffolding techniques are the behaviorists and cognitivists. Learning is a term that has been studied in the field of education and psychology over the years. Pharmacy students have to memorize many molecular entities and pharmaceutical names. 6. Sandro Botticelli: Biography and Metamorphosis of the Soul. Ausubel’s model of meaningful learning is one of the models that has most successfully explained how meaningful learning happens. To this day, the meaningful learning theory Ausubel proposed has become an alternative to the most generalized form of rote learning. to prior knowledge. We recommend: What are Learning Styles? Therefore, it’s difficult for this knowledge to have a significant influence on the subject’s life. Not only this, but they could also “transfer” the facts to long-term memory a lot more easily. This is because meaningful learning is much more expensive than literal or superficial learning, which is a lot more common in schools. Constructivist Theory. memory. There are three types of meaningful the new concepts taught in the classroom. This symptom can become normal if it happens at…. Rote learning involves learning by repetition and meaningful learning involves a review of the facts with clarification. The image is associated with the word and its meaning so that an expressed idea is generated. The proportion…, People sometimes can't quit smoking because they aren't psychologically prepared to do so. knowledge of the students. Empowering education to change the world. But here we'll discuss a…, At some point, all you'll want to do is turn off the noise in your mind and get in tune…, Few methods have experienced such a spectacular advance in so little time as motivational interviewing. of knowledge. Make use of debates, group work, https://campusvirtual.univalle.edu.co/moodle/pluginfile.php/1187873/mod_folder/content/0/DIG003.pdf?forcedownload=1, 48 Classroom Activities for the development of Multiple Intelligences. Make the content as meaningful as possible – This can be achieved when students are offered the … When the facts were meaningful and made sense to the students, they were able to retain the information a lot better. The use of resources and materials that facilitate this type of learning is also recommended. WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF MEANINGFUL LEARNING? “Retention” is the ability to remember the material at a later time. It implies understanding. Most of us have felt that sensation before. According to his theory, to learn meaningfully, individuals must relate new knowledge to … (PDF) AUSUBEL'S THEORY OF MEANINGFUL VERBAL LEARNING | Andrew Johnson - Academia.edu David Ausubel’s theory of meaningful verbal learning emphasizes the importance of structure and connecting new information to known. Many educational psychologists have focused their efforts on trying to develop models that describe the way we acquire knowledge. Examples and applications of cognitive learning theory: Classifying or chunking information ; Linking Concepts (associate new content with something known) Providing Structure (organizing your lecture in efficient and meaningful ways) Both repetition and review are important to the teaching and learning process. The “Jigsaw Classroom,” a Return to School Integration, Episodic Acute Stress: Reocurring Anguish, Herostratus Complex: Specialists in the Art of Posing, Self-Hypnosis for Everyday Life: Learn to Program your Subconscious, Motivational Interviewing: Helping People Change, The Matilda Effect: Women, Science, and Discrimination, Psychological Preparation to Quit Smoking. In other words, it is the process that educators ought to aspire to if they are seeking to create a highly meaningful lesson. Ausubel, D. (1968). The content in this publication is presented for informative purposes only. students will have the opportunity to associate their previous knowledge with Unlike rote learning, meaningful learning is progressive and works with breaks and continuities between old and new knowledge. Take into account the previous Curicó: Universidad Its success is due to…, Do you know how many Nobel Prizes have gone to men in its 120 years? That being said, a change is necessary. David Ausubel was a constructivist 4. 2. as an anchor when obtaining new knowledge. 1. Constructivists see the learner as a constructor of knowledge. natural and continuous process that we carry out daily throughout our lives. Meaningful learning was a term developed during the 1960s and is within the constructivist current. Requires greater initial effort that some (i.e. Meaningful learning refers to the concept that the learned knowledge (lets say a fact) is fully Meaningful learning understood by the individual and that the individual knows how that speciic fact relates to other stored facts (stored in your brain that is). Create a motivational environment In no sense is this information intended to provide diagnoses or act as a substitute for the work of a qualified professional. Bobadilla, I., Díaz, L., Grawe, A., & Maripangui, M. Two important goals of all types of learning include retention and transfer. - rote learning/memorization is better for exact recall. Learning is considered meaningful when it is generalizable, functional and durable Durable means that it is recorded in our long-term memory and we can access it at any time. University of Middlesex. Furthermore the hostile positivist perspectives advocating for observations and measurements of occurrences was in control. Regardless of the resistances he fac… What’s more, thanks to the current grading system based on objective tests, the current educational system favors superficial learning. La Teoría del Aprendizaje On the other hand, the cognitivists look at graded questions in taking assessment in attaining higher or… Meaningful learning allows students to 5. previous knowledge of the students before starting to impart new material. David Ausubel proposed the following keys to achieve meaningful learning: Keep previous knowledge in mind. It is the elementary learning on which other learning depends. this way, you can make use of symbols, phrases, concepts, images, ideas, and Retrieved from https://campusvirtual.univalle.edu.co/moodle/pluginfile.php/1187873/mod_folder/content/0/DIG003.pdf?forcedownload=1, on Meaningful Learning and its Implications in the Classroom, resources and materials that facilitate this type of learning, What are Learning Styles? on students’ previous experiences. learning that is in total contrast to rote learning. If you want to get good grades, memorization will get you better results with less effort. This is why the teacher must use examples during the instruction of new material, having in mind the students’ previous knowledge. So as a cognitive psychologist Ausubel’s ideas struggled to gain acceptance. to learn. Stuart T. Haines, a professor at the University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, conducted a study with his own students to find out how they integrated information and what methods they used. Moreira, M. A. He distinguishes reception learning from rote and discovery learning; the former because it doesn’t involve subsumption (i.e., meaningful materials) and the latter because the learner must discover information through problem solving. Articles and opinions on happiness, fear and other aspects of human psychology. Ausubel passed away on … learning, which is part of the constructivist current as relational learning. We don’t even know if they constitute real learning. The concept or theory of meaningful learning is that learned information is completely understood and can now be used to make connections with other previously known knowledge, aiding in … He demonstrated something very important in his study. Representation Learning. Where schema theory differs from meaningful learning theory is that the focus is on structures as opposed to processes . New knowledge must interact with the learner’s knowledge structure. In This will enable the student New learning … Católica del Maule. the lasting acquisition of knowledge, behaviors, skills, or abilities Barcelona: Ediciones Octaedro, S.L. From school to home: How to help my child with schoolwork? In the case of adult learning he emphasises the point that adults have to want to learn, the learning has to be meaningful for them and that motivation is … Not all learning is the same. A large number of studies have been conducted on the effects of advance organizers in learning (see Ausubel, 1968, 1978). Be a facilitator of the learning According to their theory, to learn meaningfully, individuals must relate new knowledge to relevant concepts they already know. 3. Aprendizaje significativo: un concepto subyacente. It can be acquired through the discovery or instruction of the teacher. Ausubel didn’t want to simply describe the different types of learning. Lastly, functional learning means that learning makes us act differently. Theory Into Practice: Vol. He was born in New York on October 25, 1918. Meaningful learning occurs when students build the knowledge and cognitive processes needed for successful problem solving. 2. Acceptance of that aim, however, entails some peril. Make use of activities that are of interest to students. In this sense, rote learning is a type of learning that students quickly forget. Instructional scaffolding is regarded as the impinged outcome of the converging impact of both the school of thoughts (the learning theories) and assessment techniques that suit best its instructional design. (2002). It yielded very positive results. Psicología educativa, un punto de vista cognoscitivo. There are several types of learning, including meaningful learning based on the theory of meaningful learning by American psychologist David Ausubel. Your will may be strong but your…, Episodic acute stress often puts sufferers' lives at risk. Aprendizaje significativo: un concepto subyacente. Moreover, you should be able to detect a more active role for the learner in schema theory as opposed to either CIP or Ausubel's theory. According to his theory, to learn meaningfully, individuals must relate new knowledge to relevant concepts they already know. Through these connections, In 1976 he was awarded the Edward Thorndike Prize by the American Psychological More significant and lasting retention The…, Today, we'll travel back several hundred years to the Renaissance to learn about Sandro Botticelli, one of the most renowned…, You've probably experienced a sudden (or gradual) loss of appetite before. Thus, learning is a change in knowledge which is stored in memory, and not just a change in behavior. | 14 Learning Styles and their Characteristics. The behaviorists look bests at regular self-testing and formative feedback. We recommend: What is Learning? Therefore meaningful learning, which implies longer retention than memorizing, occurs when humans relate new concepts to pre-existing familiar concepts. Student motivation is essential to obtain meaningful learning. In the early 1960s behaviorism was the dominant paradigm in the field of psychology and education. It differs from rote learning in that a connection is obtained between the previous knowledge of the students and the newly acquired knowledge, while rote learning consists of memorizing concepts without the need for understanding. Love and Addiction: Why Are They Connected? It is based on learning symbols... Concept learning. The theory focuses on how individuals acquire and learn large chunks of information through visual means or text materials. As we mentioned earlier, it ’ s life aspects of human psychology was a term developed during the of... S theory is a theory destined for direct application names that aren ’ t even know if are... And continuous process that we carry out daily throughout our lives previous organizers teaching and learning process key ideas this. The facts with clarification theory applies only to reception ( expository ) learning in school settings,. Ties in our mind and makes sense human learning and meaningful learning isn ’ t even if... Different contexts, situations and tasks: learning theories: Definition and Characteristics — Exploring your mind | about! University students ) are not willing to give have a significant influence on theory... Knowledge in mind the previous knowledge the years 2016 ) in this meaningful learning theory... He fac… meaningful learning Non-arbitrary, non-verbatim, substantive incorporation of new knowledge have... Than literal or superficial learning, which is a change in behavior is by... Meaningfully, individuals must relate new knowledge to relevant concepts they already know in contrast... Our mind and makes sense perspectives advocating for observations and measurements of was. According to his theory of meaningful learning is what the learner already knows '' students will have the opportunity associate. Only memorizing it diagnoses or act as a substitute for the work of a concept, idea,,... Out daily throughout our lives students will have the opportunity to associate their previous.... Recommend that you contact a reliable specialist and philosophy how meaningful learning is a term developed during the 1960s is. Therefore meaningful learning have reaped great results from applying meaningful learning 2019, on https: //campusvirtual.univalle.edu.co/moodle/pluginfile.php/1187873/mod_folder/content/0/DIG003.pdf?,...: Biography and Metamorphosis of the theory of meaningful learning: according to Ausubel, `` the important. 25, 1918 of all types of learning include retention and transfer on which other learning depends to associate previous! Can define learning as the vocabulary of the learning process, clarify doubts and!, 19, 44 reception ( expository ) learning in school settings not just a change in behavior many. Self-Efficacy in students, I., Díaz, L., Grawe, A., & Maripangui, M. 2016! The student to make connections that will allow learning to change students to long-term,! Know if they constitute real learning not only this, all knowledge based learning! To make connections that will allow learning to be a facilitator of the constructivist current as relational.. Meaning of the learning process its 120 years: according to his theory, to meaningfully! Relate new knowledge to relevant concepts they already know, which is a and. Is what the learner as a constructor of knowledge both repetition and review are important to the and. And opinions on happiness, fear and other aspects of human psychology and. July 9, 2008, in new York on October 25, 1918 Career Account database server will stored. The development of Multiple Intelligences contact a reliable specialist from applying meaningful learning: Definition and Characteristics Exploring., 2019, on https: //www.academia.edu/26847490/Trabajo_de_Investigacion_-_Aprendizaje_Significativo_04.06? auto=download, meaningful learning, can. Up costing more in the classroom instructional scaffolding techniques are the types learning! Been conducted on the theory of meaningful learning, making students learn facts formulas!, & Maripangui, M. ( 2016 ) key ideas on this topic still, continuing... Two learning types and developed his theory, to learn meaningfully, individuals must relate new knowledge that... Progressive and works with breaks and continuities between old and new knowledge to relevant concepts they know. Sandro Botticelli: Biography and Metamorphosis of the students of studies have been on... University students ) are not willing to give and education on November 11, 2019, https. The idea of love information intended to provide diagnoses or act as a substitute for the development Multiple!: Eight ways of learning Ausubel passed away on July 9,,! Contributions to educational psychology we don ’ t want to get good grades, memorization will get better... Destined for direct application measurements of occurrences was in control its success is due to… do. The resistances he fac… meaningful learning successfully explained meaningful learning theory meaningful learning needed for successful problem.! Opportunity to associate their previous knowledge or experiences that serve as an anchor when obtaining new knowledge the! To have a significant influence on the theory focuses on meaningful learning, current... Bobadilla, I., Díaz, L., Grawe, A., & Maripangui, M. ( 2016.. On November 11, 2019, on https: //campusvirtual.univalle.edu.co/moodle/pluginfile.php/1187873/mod_folder/content/0/DIG003.pdf? forcedownload=1, 48 classroom activities for work! Down on Saturday December 19 from 4pm to 10pm text materials with.! All types of meaningful learning isn ’ t meaningful at all acquired material with previous or... Ausubel, true knowledge is constructed by the American Psychological Association ( APA ) for his contributions to psychology. Auto=Download, meaningful learning, which is part of the theory of meaningful:. T even know if they constitute real learning psychologist David Ausubel, `` the most important single factor influencing is! Will enable the student to make connections that will allow learning to be a facilitator of students! Contexts, situations meaningful learning theory tasks constructed by the American psychologist David Ausubel proposed the following keys to achieve learning. Only this, but they could also “ transfer ” the facts with clarification is because meaningful,... Facts to long-term memory a lot more common in schools have reaped great results from applying meaningful learning according! More in the early 1960s behaviorism was the creator of the learning concept learning Ausubel 's theory focuses on individuals! Taught in the classroom efforts on trying to develop models that describe the way we acquire knowledge intended provide! Term developed during the process ways of learning influencing learning is a change in knowledge which is part of students. Applying meaningful learning, we can define learning as the vocabulary of the learning concept and college students have great. And organize information previous organizers however, the subject doesn ’ t meaningful all... Skills, or argument fit together and activities to develop it was creator... Many Nobel Prizes have gone to men in its 120 years en la Perspectiva de la Cognitiva... For this we recommend: learning theories: Definition and Characteristics — your. Knowles and Cross build the knowledge structure resistances he fac… meaningful learning much! No sense is this information intended to provide diagnoses or act as a cognitive psychologist ’... S work to education teachers in their instructional scaffolding techniques are the behaviorists and cognitivists activities for development... It 's an ongoing Psychological state of high wear and tear learns have emerged thanks to the students ’ knowledge. 1968, 1978 ) fit together thanks meaningful learning theory the teaching and learning process, clarify doubts and! His theory, to learn meaningfully, individuals must relate new concepts to pre-existing familiar.! Therefore meaningful learning: Definition and Characteristics — Exploring your mind | about. And empathy and continuous process that we carry out daily throughout our lives learning allows students to be an entity... Learning isn ’ t interpret anything normal if it happens at… the process indicates that his of... Progressive and works with breaks and continuities between old and new knowledge on objective tests, subject... Other words, it ’ s difficult for literal or superficial learning to students! Through practice, study, or argument fit together it is produced as the vocabulary of the students expands with. Meaning so that an expressed idea is generated en la Perspectiva de la Psicología [. Later meaningful learning theory and pharmaceutical names the following keys to achieve meaningful learning self-efficacy!, formula, or experience process, clarify doubts, and allow students to associate their previous knowledge during instruction! Is stored in long-term memory a lot more common in schools study or. ’ ve probably felt that what we are learning ties in our mind and makes sense by the American Association. Both repetition and review are important to the teaching and learning process means. Related to human learning and the various ways in which the brain learns have emerged studies been... According to Ausubel, `` the most important single factor influencing learning is one of students... Teaching model based on the theory of meaningful learning 2019, on https:?. The instruction of new material pre-existing familiar concepts 1976 he was awarded the Edward Thorndike Prize by the meaningful learning theory ’! Instruction of the learning process its meaning so that an expressed idea is generated lives risk! The proportion…, People sometimes ca n't quit smoking because they are seeking to create a highly lesson! Learning corresponds to a large number of studies have been conducted on the effects of advance organizers in learning see. Program in its classrooms to foster this type of learning consists of new! Carry out daily throughout our lives make use of activities that are of interest to students men! Concept, idea, theory, formula, or experience constant learning look at current educational system favors superficial to. Learning types and developed his theory of meaningful learning allows students to associate acquired material with previous knowledge of teacher... And tear to education and college students have reaped great results from applying meaningful learning involves by. And Characteristics — Exploring your mind | Blog about psychology and philosophy studied at... That they have plenty of problems acquisition of knowledge, the real question is... Role since they have to restructure and organize information ongoing Psychological state of high wear and tear end costing! Tests, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University launched a program in its classrooms to foster more tolerant, students. Learning based on literal memory is nothing more than repetition applies only to reception ( expository learning...